¿Hacia dónde mira el usuario? Eye-tracking y métodos de testing para UX

March 21, 2016 Back to blog

“El eye-tracking es una técnica que sirve para hacer mediciones a partir del seguimiento de la vista. Este proceso se utiliza en la investigación de los sistemas visuales, en psicología, en lingüística cognitiva o en diseño de productos”.

 

¿En qué consiste?

 

El eye-tracking o seguimiento de ojos es el proceso de evaluar tanto el punto donde se fija nuestra mirada (dónde estamos mirando), como el movimiento del ojo en relación con la cabeza. Este proceso se utiliza en la investigación de los sistemas visuales, en psicología, en lingüística cognitiva o en diseño de productos.

Cada vez hay más empresas que lo utilizan. El llamado neuromarketing se sirve del eye-tracking para estudiar la conducta del consumidor antes incluso de que llegue al punto de venta. Mediante la medición de la fijación de la mirada, se pueden intuir las intenciones de compra del cliente.

Existen diversos sistemas para determinar el movimiento de los ojos. La variante más popular utiliza imágenes de video a partir de las cuales se extrae la posición del ojo. Otros métodos utilizan search coil o están basados en electrooculogramas.

 

Es el método definitivo:

 

A nivel visual, es el método más potente. Incluso mucho más que cualquier encuesta. Esto es debido a que el consumidor actúa principalmente influido por sus emociones (recordemos el siguiente post: http://www.ad-pure.com/blog/publicidad/la-importancia-de-lo-emocional-en-marketing/). Lo que éste declara en una encuesta no siempre corresponde a cómo se comporta realmente.

Hay todo un mundo detrás. Por cómo miramos, podemos sacar todo tipo de conclusiones.

 

5546677366_454238c3fb_b                       Photo credit: SMI Eye Tracking via Foter.com / CC BY

 

Lo que queremos medir es el seguimiento del ojo. Éste, como hemos explicado anteriormente, se mueve en relación con la cabeza. Nosotros con nuestros ojos no sólo miramos, si no que damos a entender todo tipo de expresión psicológica.

No sólo se obtiene información en cuanto a qué producto prefiere el usuario, si no que podemos sacar conclusiones sobre qué sentimiento provoca una imagen o punto de interés que hayamos puesto en nuestra web, o por qué esquivan algún otro.

 

Existen varios tipos de eye-tracking:

 

– Mediante sensado invasivo: Se realiza mediante herramientas como lentes de contacto con un espejo incorporado o un sensor de campo magnético. Este tipo de mediciones aportan grabaciones muy detalladas de los movimientos oculares. Son herramientas que se encuentran en mercados especializados.

– Mediante sensado no invasivo: Es el que se realiza sin necesidad de que haya contacto. Se capta mediante una cámara de video o algún otro sensor óptico a través de la luz –normalmente infrarroja- que se refleja en los ojos.

– Mediante potenciales eléctricos: Se colocan electrodos alrededor de los ojos para detectar el movimiento. La señal eléctrica que deriva del uso de estos electrodos colocados alrededor del ojo es el electrooculograma del cual hablábamos al principio.

 

El mapa de calor:

 

358223163_3ac654620f                            Photo credit: dannysullivan via Foter.com / CC BY

Se usa para representar la información obtenida tras realizar el eye-tracking. Su función es medir las masas de color. Las zonas ‘calientes’ o de mayor intensidad señalan dónde coinciden las zonas de referencia viso-espacial con mayor frecuencia.

Con él intentaremos detectar elementos importantes o que destaquen en una imagen, página web, anuncio, etc. Sin embargo, al tratarse de una representación estática, esto provoca que nos resulte más difícil de interpretar que las representaciones que son animadas.

 

La parte central es donde va el ojo a primera vista:

 

Nosotros miramos de izquierda a derecha (ya que leemos de izquierda a derecha). Así, nuestra mirada irá primero al centro y después se irá dispersando desde la parte superior izquierda a la inferior derecha.

Y ya que, normalmente, siempre fijamos la vista en la parte izquierda superior, hemos de dar una gran importancia a los elementos que colocamos en el centro y en la parte inferior de nuestra web para que el ojo haga el esfuerzo de ir hasta allí.

El eye-tracking también mide el cansancio. Por lo que nuestra página ha de tener espacios en blanco para que la vista descanse al visualizar la web. Además, el eye-tracking mide –a parte del color- las zonas de exposición que tienen más impacto.

test-670091_1280

 

Este tipo de pruebas a usuarios consigue que abaratemos costes según el ámbito de actuación en que nos encontremos. Lo ideal sería hacerlo con clientes. Lo interesante después de hacer las pruebas sería generar un documento con analíticas en el cual se especifique cuánto tiempo ha estado el usuario observando según qué zonas.

Hoy en día es el método más efectivo desde el punto de vista del desarrollo web o diseño de la interfaz.

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